Spin-wave spectroscopy of individual ferromagnetic nanodisks†
The increasing demand for nanoscale magnetic devices requires development of 3D magnetic nanostructures. In this regard, focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a technique of choice for direct-writing of complex nano-architectures with applications in nanomagnetism, magnon spintronics, and superconducting electronics. However, intrinsic properties of nanomagnets are often poorly known and can hardly be assessed by local optical probe techniques. Here, an original spatially resolved approach is demonstrated for spin-wave spectroscopy of individual circular magnetic elements with sample volumes down to about 10−3 μm3. The key component of the setup is a coplanar waveguide whose microsized central part is placed over a movable substrate with well-separated CoFe-FEBID nanodisks which exhibit standing spin-wave resonances. The circular symmetry of the disks allows for the deduction of the saturation magnetization and the exchange stiffness of the material using an analytical theory. A good correspondence between the results of analytical calculations and micromagnetic simulations is revealed, indicating a validity of the used analytical model going beyond the initial thin-disk approximation used in the theoretical derivation. The presented approach is especially valuable for the characterization of direct-write magnetic elements opening new horizons for 3D nanomagnetism and magnonics.