Iron nanoparticle templates for constructing 3D graphene framework with enhanced performance in sodium-ion batteries
This study examines the synthesis and electrochemical performance of three-dimensional graphene for use as Li-ion batteries and Na-ion batteries. The in-situ formation of iron hydroxide nanoparticles (Fe(OH)x NPs) of various weights on the surface of graphene oxide, followed by thermal treatment at elevated temperature and washing using hydrochloric acid, furnished 3D graphene. The characterization confirmed the prevention of stacking graphene layers by over 90% more than thermal treatment without Fe(OH)x. The electrochemical performance of the 3D graphene was evaluated as a counter electrode for lithium metal and sodium metal in a half-cell configuration. This material showed good performances with a charging capacity of 507 mAh g-1 at 372 mA g-1 in Li-ion battery and 252 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 in Na-ion battery, which is 1.4 and 1.9 times higher, respectively, than the graphene prepared without Fe(OH)x templates.