Key considerations in designing CRISPR/Cas9-carrying nanoparticles for therapeutic genome editing
CRISPR-Cas9, the breakthrough genome-editing technology, has emerged as a promising tool to prevent and cure various diseases. The efficient genome editing technology strongly relies on the specific and effective delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 cargos. However, the lack of a safe, specific, and efficient non-viral delivery system for in vivo genome editing remains a major limit for its clinical translation. In this review, we will first briefly introduce the working mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9 and the patterns of CRISPR/Cas9 delivery. Furthermore, the physiological obstacles for the delivery process in vivo are elaborated. Finally, the key considerations will be deeply discussed in designing non-viral nanovectors for therapeutic CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in vivo, including the effective encapsulation of large-size macromolecules, targeting specific tissues and cells, efficient endosomal escape and safety concerns of the vector systems, in the hope of inviting more comprehensive studies on the development of safe, specific, and efficient non-viral nanovectors for delivering a CRISPR/Cas9 system.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Editor’s Choice: Recent breakthroughs in nanobiotechnology, 2020 Nanoscale HOT Article Collection and Recent Review Articles