Ce6-Conjugated and Polydopamine-Coated Gold Nanostars with Enhanced Photoacoustic Imaging and Photothermal/Photodynamic Therapy to Inhibit Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer
Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure in breast cancer, and integrated phototheranostics is a promising strategy to achieve both precision theranostics and metastasis inhibition. In this work, a multifunctional phototheranostic nanoprobe composed of chlorin e6 (Ce6)-conjugated and polydopamine (PDA)-coated gold nanostars (AuNSs) was synthesized for simultaneous photoacoustic (PA) imaging, photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Under the irradiation of near infrared laser, AuNSs@PDA showed enhanced photothermal conversion and amplified PA imaging performance, compared with single AuNSs. By the covalent conjugation of Ce6, AuNSs@PDA-Ce6 nanoprobe showed robust stability and excellent singlet oxygen (1O2) generation ability. Under the combination of PTT/PDT, the AuNSs@PDA-Ce6 nanoprobes significantly reduced the growth of 4T1 tumors and suppressed their lung metastasis. All the results demonstrated a considerable potential of AuNSs@PDA-Ce6 phototheranostic nanoprobes for precision theranostics and metastasis inhibition of breast cancer.