P–N conversion of charge carrier types and high photoresponsive performance of composition modulated ternary alloy W(SxSe1−x)2 field-effect transistors†
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which are promising for diverse applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and photonics. To satisfy the requirements of the building blocks of functional devices, systematic modulation of the band gap and carrier type of TMDs materials becomes a significant challenge. Here, we report a salt-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach for the simultaneous growth of alloy W(SxSe1−x)2 nanosheets with variable alloy compositions. Electrical transport studies based on the as-fabricated W(SxSe1−x)2 nanosheet field-effect transistors (FETs) demonstrate that charge carrier types of alloy nanosheet transistors can be systematically tuned by adjusting the alloy composition. Temperature-dependent current measurement shows that the main scattering mechanism is the charged impurity scattering. The effective Schottky barrier heights of bipolar W(SxSe1−x)2 transistors are initially increased and then decreased with increasing positive (or negative) gate voltage, which is tunable by varying the alloy composition. In addition, the tunability of these W(SxSe1−x)2-based ambipolar transistors is suitable for logic and analog applications and represents a critical step toward future fundamental studies as well as for the rational design of new 2D electronics with tailored spectral responses, and simpler and higher integration densities. Finally, the high photoresponsivity (up to 914 mA W−1) and detectivity (4.57 × 1010 Jones) of ultrathin W(SxSe1−x)2 phototransistors imply their potential applications in flexible light-detection and light-harvesting devices. These band gap engineered 2D structures could open up an exciting opportunity and contribute to finding diverse applications in future functional electronic/optoelectronic devices.