Recent advancements in solid–liquid triboelectric nanogenerators for energy harvesting and self-powered applications
The abundance of water on earth provides a large window to utilize the mechanical energy within river currents and ocean waves. In this regard, hydropower harvesting through solid–liquid contact electrification has received considerable interest in the recent past. Despite advancements in nanotechnology, liquid energy harvesting devices, especially solid–liquid triboelectric nanogenerators (S–L TENGs), require efficient engineering of the interfacial properties of their substrates to transfer liquid mass and momentum rapidly with the effective generation/transfer of surface charges. To face this challenge, several parameters such as the selection of material, surface morphology and surface properties are currently being studied to develop a better system architecture for energy harvesting and self-powered application platforms with three different interacting modes of liquid contact. Moreover, several parameters of the contact solvents such as the ionic activity and polarity have been studied to understand the practical applicability of S–L TENGs to harvest energy from different natural and artificial resources. In addition, the scope of harvesting mechanical energy from other volatile organic compounds has been studied recently. Self-powered applications of S–L TENGs in various fields have also been demonstrated by different research groups. This work reviews recent progress in the development of S–L TENGs for the first time in terms of the different properties of solid and liquid contact materials along with their respective applications. Furthermore, the work concludes with perspectives, future opportunities, and major challenges of fabricating S–L TENGs as an efficient energy harvester.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles