Carrier Polarity Modulation of Molybdenum Ditelluride (MoTe2) for Phototransistors and Switching Photodiodes
Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are layered semiconductor materials that have been recently emerged as promising candidates for advanced nano- and photoelectronic applications. Previously, various doping methods, such as surface functionalization, chemical doping, substitutional doping, surface charge transfer, and electrostatic doping, have been introduced, which are not stable or efficient. In this study, we have developed carrier polarity modulation of molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) for phototransistors and switching photodiodes. Initially, we treated p-MoTe2 in the N2 environment under DUV irradiation and found that the p-type MoTe2 changed to n-type MoTe2. However, the treated devices exhibited environmental stability over a long period of 60 days. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurement demonstrated that the values of work function for p-MoTe2 and n-MoTe2 were ~4.90 and ~4.49 eV, respectively, which confirmed the carrier tunabilty. Also, first principal study was performed to confirm the n-type carrier polarity variation. Interestingly, the n-type MoTe2 reversed its polarity to p-type after the irradiation of the devices under DUV in an O2 environment. Additionally, a lateral homojunction-based p-n diode of MoTe2 with a rectification ratio of ~2.5 × 104 was formed with the value of contact potential difference of ~400 mV and estimated a fast rise time of 29 ms and decay time of 38 ms. Furthermore, a well self-biased photovoltaic behavior upon illumination of light was attained and various photovoltaic parameters were examined. Also, established VOC switching behavior at the p−n diode state by switching on and off the incident light. We believe that this efficient and facile carrier polarity modulation technique may pave the way for the development of phototransistors and switching photodiodes in advanced nanotechnology.