Gold nanowire growth through stacking fault mechanism by oleylamine-mediated synthesis†
Tadpole-like gold nanowires were obtained by the oleylamine-mediated synthesis presenting an unusual mixture of fcc and hcp phases. Structural analyses were performed to understand their structure and growth using aberration-corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction at the tail region of tadpoles showing that the anisotropic shape occurred due to stacking fault defects. Stacking faults and twin defects are responsible for the hcp phase inferring a defect dependent growth. The stacking fault model used in X-ray diffraction (XRD) refinement resulted in 60% of hcp stacking sequences. Temperature-dependent XRD analyses showed that the faults become unstable around 120 °C, and it is completely converted to the fcc phase at 230 °C. We attribute the nanowire formation to a stacking fault mechanism of growth that begins in the later stage of nanoparticle growth. The UV-Vis spectrum presented two localized surface plasmon resonance bands at 500 nm and from 800 nm extending to near-infrared, associated with transverse and longitudinal modes, respectively. A surprising ferromagnetic behavior is also observed with a blocking temperature near 300 K.