Video-rate upconversion display from optimized lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles†
Volumetric displays that create bright image points within a transparent bulk are one of the most attractive technologies in everyday life. Lanthanide ion doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are promising luminescent nanomaterials for background free, full-colour volumetric displays of transparent bulk materials. However, video-rate display using UCNPs has been limited by their low emission intensity. Herein, we developed a video-rate upconversion display system with much enhanced brightness. The integral emission intensity of the single UCNPs was fully employed for video-rate display. It was maximized by optimizing the emitter concentration and, more importantly, by temporally synchronizing the scanning time of the excitation light to the the raised emission time of the single UCNPs. The excitation power dependent emission response and emission time decay curves were systematically characterized for the single UCNPs with various emitter concentrations from 0.5% to 6%. 1%Tm3+ doped UCNPs presented the highest integral emission intensity. By embedding this UCNPs into a polyvinyl acetate (PVA) film, we achieved a two-dimensional (2D) upconversion display with a frame rate of 29 Hz for 35 by 50 pixels. This work demonstrates that the temporal response as well as the integral emission intensity enable video-rate upconversion display.