Three-dimensional Pd–Ag–S porous nanosponges for electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction to ammonia†
Electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) provides a facile and sustainable route to synthesize ammonia. The preparation of efficient and high-performance catalysts is one of the most important issues in large-scale applications of the electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. Herein, we have devised a simple method to fabricate three-dimensional palladium-silver-sulphur porous nanosponges (Pd–Ag–S PNSs) under room temperature. The porous network can provide more active sites and accessible channels for the reaction species. The incorporation of sulfur reduces the energy barrier of NRR and promotes the nitrogen hydrogenation to ammonia. Intrinsically, the Pd–Ag–S PNSs demonstrates a superior NRR performance with an NH3 yield of 9.73 μg h−1 mg−1cat. and a faradaic efficiency of 18.41% at −0.2 V, superior to those of the undoped Pd–Ag PNSs. The design of the three-dimensional metallic nanosponges with the doping of nonmetallic elements is a highly valuable strategy for NRR and other electrocatalytic reactions.