Trigger-responsive engineered nanocarriers and image-guided theranostics for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), one of the leading causes of disability due to progressive autoimmune destruction of synovial joints, affects ~1% of the global population. Standard therapy helps reducing inflammation and delaying the progression of RA but limited by non-responsiveness on long-term use and several side-effects. The conventional nanocarriers (CNCs), to some extent, minimize toxicity associated with free drug administration while improving therapeutic efficacy. However, due to uncontrolled release of the encapsulated drug even at off-targeted organs limits the application of CNCs. To overcome these challenges, trigger-responsive engineered-nanocarriers (ENCs) are being recently explored for RA treatment. Unlike CNCs, the ENCs enable precise control over on-demand drug release due to endogenous triggers in arthritic paw like pH, enzyme level, oxidative stress, or exogenously applied triggers like near-infrared light, magnetic field, ultrasonic waves, etc. As the trigger is selectively applied to the inflamed joint, it potentially reduces toxicity at off-target locations. Moreover, the ENCs have been strategically coupled with imaging probe(s) for simultaneous monitoring ENCs inside body and facilitate ‘image-guided-co-trigger’ for site-specific action in arthritic paw. In this review, the progress made on recently emerging ‘trigger-responsive’ and ‘image-guided theranostics’ ENCs for RA treatment has been explored with emphasis on the design strategies, mechanism, current status, challenges, and translational perspectives.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles