Photosensitized Reactive Chlorine Species-Mediated Therapeutic Destruction of Drug-Resistant Bacteria using Plasmonic Core-Shell Ag@AgCl Nanocubes as External Nanomedicines
Due to the rapid growth of drug-resistant bacterial infections, there is an urgent need to develop innovative antimicrobial strategies to conquer the bacterial antibiotic resistance problems. Although a few nanomaterial-based antimicrobial strategies have been developed, the sensitized formation of cytotoxic reactive chlorine species (RCS), including chlorine gas and chlorine free radicals, by photo-activatable plasmonic nanoparticles for evading drug-resistant bacterial infections have not yet been reported. To address this challenge, herein, we report synthesis of an unprecedented plasmonic core-shell Ag@AgCl nanocrystal through an in situ oxidation route for the photo induced generation of highly cytotoxic RCS. We present the detailed in vitro and in vivo investigations of visible light activated Ag@AgCl nanostructures-mediated evading of drug-resistant bacteria. In particular, in vivo results demonstrate the complete reepithelization of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infected wounds on skin upon phototherapeutic treatment mediated Ag@AgCl NCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first unique example of using Ag@AgCl NCs as an external nanomedicine for photo-induced generation of RCS to mediate effective killing of both gram-positive and gram-negative drug resistance bacteria and healing of the subcutaneous abscesses in an in vivo mice model.