Recent progress in indoor organic photovoltaics
Among various potential applications of organic photovoltaics (OPVs), indoor power generation has great potential because of several advantages over outdoor light harvesting under 1 sun conditions. Commonly used indoor light sources have narrower emission spectra with lower intensity (by 3 orders of magnitude) as compared to the solar spectrum. Highly tunable optical absorption, large absorption coefficients, and small leakage currents under dim lighting conditions make OPVs promising candidates for indoor applications. For optimizing indoor photovoltaic materials and devices, several key issues (different from those under 1 sun conditions), such as developing new indoor photovoltaic materials and devices with suitable absorption spectra, large open-circuit voltages with low energy loss, minimized trap-mediated charge recombination and leakage currents, and device stability under indoor conditions, should be considered carefully. In this review, the recent progress in optimization of indoor photovoltaic materials and devices, and the key strategies to optimize the indoor photovoltaic characteristics will be summarized and discussed.