Rich novel zero-dimensional (0D), 1D, and 2D topological elements predicted in the P63/m type ternary boride HfIr3B4
Topological semimetals, including topological nodal point semimetals (TNPSs), topological nodal line state semimetals (TNLSs), and topological nodal surface semimetals (TNSSs), featuring zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) topological elements (TEs), respectively, have attracted widespread attention in recent years. In this work, based on first-principles, we propose for the first time that three different (0D, 1D, and 2D) TEs are simultaneously presented in a synthetic compound, HfIr3B4 with P63/m type structure. In detail, HfIr3B4 hosts a Dirac point (DP) state at the K point, a TNL state in the kz = 0 plane, and a 2D TNS state in the kz = π plane, respectively. All sorts of topological elements, 0D, 1D, and 2D TEs, coexisting in P63/m type HfIr3B4, provide an ideal platform to study the rich fermionic states and related physical properties in this type of compound. In addition, because the 0D, 1D, and 2D TEs of HfIr3B4 are exactly distributed in different energy ranges relative to the Fermi level, an approach is proposed to utilize individual TEs to build on-demand devices.