Dual photothermal MDSCs-targeted immunotherapy inhibits lung immunosuppressive metastasis by enhancing T-cell recruitment†
Immunosuppressive chemoresistance is a major barrier in lung cancer treatment. However, the immunosuppressive mechanisms responsible for lung cancer cell chemoresistance and tumor relapse are still unknown. In this study, we introduce a model of precise immunosuppressive-based nanotherapy by designing and delivering biocompatible MDSC-targeted nanocarriers (NCs) into the lung tumor microenvironment. This is accomplished by conjugating L-Norvaline and Sunitinib integrated into biodegradable nanosomes in order to facilitate inhibition of tumor-supporting immunosuppression. Findings show that treatment with NCs increased apoptosis and significantly reduced tumor volume and Ki-67 antigen expression respectively. Biodistribution analysis revealed an increase in drug circulation time, as well as a greater accumulation in lung and peripheral tissues. Furthermore, an upregulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes expression was observed, especially CD8+ T cells by 27%, and CD4+ T cells by 7% compared to PBS treatment. The presence of CD161+ (NK1.1) cells revealed NK cell activation followed by decreased MDSC infiltration and MDSC subsets were characterized by the reduction of Gr/CD11b cell population in blood and tissue samples. In addition, these nanospheres, showed increased PTT efficiency and tumour targeting ability as evidenced by highly efficient tumour ablation under near infrared (NIR) exposure. Significant tumor reduction was observed due to recruitment of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, followed by downregulation of immunosuppressive Foxp3+ Treg cells. Taken together, our findings provide a novel nanodrug delivery strategy for the inhibition of MDSC-related immunosuppression in lung tumor microenvironment and provide a new approach for the efficient treatment of metastatic cancer.