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Monovalent Sulfur Oxoanions Enable Millimeter-Long Single Crystalline h-WO3 Nanowire Synthesis

Abstract

Here we discuss a chemical capping misunderstanding, which has intrinsically hindered to extend the length of hexagonal(h)-WO3 nanowires in previous studies. Although divalent sulfate ions (SO42-) have been strongly believed as efficient capping ions to direct an anisotropic h-WO3 nanowire growth, we found that the presence of SO42- is highly detrimental for the anisotropic crystal growth of h-WO3 nanowires, and a monovalent sulfur oxoanion (HSO4-) rather than the SO42- only substantially promotes the anisotropic h-WO3 nanowire growths. Ab initio electronic structure simulations reveal that the monovalent sulfur oxoanions are more preferentially able to cap the sidewall plane (100) of h-WO3 nanowires due to the lower hydration energy when compared with SO42-. Based on this capping strategy, using monovalent sulfur oxoanion (CH3SO3-), which cannot generate divalent sulfur oxoanions, we successfully fabricate ultra-long h-WO3 nanowires up to millimeter range (1.2 mm) for the wider range of precursor concentrations. We demonstrate the feasibility of these millimeter-long h-WO3 nanowires for electrical sensing of molecules (lung cancer biomarker: nonanal) on the flexible substrates, which can be operated at room temperature with the mechanical flexibility even bending cycles up to 104 times due to the enhanced textile effect.

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Article information


Submitted
13 Dec 2019
Accepted
23 Mar 2020
First published
23 Mar 2020

Nanoscale, 2020, Accepted Manuscript
Article type
Paper

Monovalent Sulfur Oxoanions Enable Millimeter-Long Single Crystalline h-WO3 Nanowire Synthesis

G. Zhang, C. Wang, W. Mizukami, T. Hosomi, K. Nagashima, H. Yoshida, K. Nakamura, T. Takahashi, M. Kanai, T. Yasui, Y. Aoki, Y. Baba and T. Yanagida, Nanoscale, 2020, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C9NR10565D

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