Recent advances in two-dimensional ferromagnetism: materials synthesis, physical properties and device applications
Two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnetism is critical for both scientific investigation and technological development owing to its low-dimensionality that brings in quantization of electronic states as well as free axes for device modulation. However, the scarcity of high-temperature 2D ferromagnets has been the obstacle of many research studies, such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) and thin-film spintronics. Indeed, in the case of the isotropic Heisenberg model with finite-range exchange interactions as an example, low-dimensionality is shown to be contraindicated with ferromagnetism. However, the advantages of low-dimensionality for micro-scale patterning could enhance the Curie temperature (TC) of 2D ferromagnets beyond the TC of bulk materials, opening the door for designing high-temperature ferromagnets in the 2D limit. In this paper, we review the recent advances in the field of 2D ferromagnets, including their material systems, physical properties, and potential device applications.