Recent progress and advances in the environmental applications of MXene related materials
MXenes are a new type of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbide or carbonitride material with a 2D structure similar to graphene. The general formula of MXenes is Mn+1XnTx, in which M is an early transition metal element, X represents carbon, nitrogen and boron, and T is a surface oxygen-containing or fluorine-containing group. These novel 2D materials possess a unique 2D layered structure, large specific surface area, good conductivity, stability, and mechanical properties. Benefitting from these properties, MXenes have received increasing attention and emerged as new substrate materials for exploration of various applications including, energy storage and conversion, photothermal treatment, drug delivery, environmental adsorption and catalytic degradation. The progress on various applications of MXene-based materials has been reviewed; while only a few of them covered environmental remediation, surface modification of MXenes has never been highlighted. In this review, we highlight recent advances and achievements in surface modification and environmental applications (such as environmental adsorption and catalytic degradation) of MXene-based materials. The current studies on the biocompatibility and toxicity of MXenes and related materials are summarized in the following sections. The challenges and future directions of the environmental applications of MXene-based materials are also discussed and highlighted.