Recent development and prospects of surface modification and biomedical applications of MXenes
MXenes, as a novel kind of two-dimensional (2D) materials, were first discovered by Gogotsi et al. in 2011. Owing to their multifarious chemical compositions and outstanding physicochemical properties, the novel types of 2D materials have attracted intensive research interest for potential applications in various fields such as energy storage and conversion, environmental remediation, catalysis, and biomedicine. Although many achievements have been made in recent years, there still remains a lack of reviews to summarize these recent advances of MXenes, especially in biomedical fields. Understanding the current status of surface modification, biomedical applications and toxicity of MXenes and related materials will give some inspiration to the development of novel methods for the preparation of multifunctional MXene-based materials and promote the practical biomedical applications of MXenes and related materials. In this review, we present the recent developments in the surface modification of MXenes and the biomedical applications of MXene-based materials. In the first section, some typical surface modification strategies were introduced and the related issues were also discussed. Then, the potential biomedical applications (such as biosensor, biological imaging, photothermal therapy, drug delivery, theranostic nanoplatforms, and antibacterial agents) of MXenes and related materials were summarized and highlighted in the following sections. In the last section, the toxicity and biocompatibility of MXenes in vitro were mentioned. Finally, the development, future directions and challenges about the surface modification of MXene-based materials for biomedical applications were discussed. We believe that this review article will attract great interest from the scientists in materials, chemistry, biomedicine and related fields and promote the development of MXenes and related materials for biomedical applications.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Review Articles