Structural diversity, bioactivities, and biosynthesis of natural diterpenoid alkaloids†
Covering: 2009 to 2018.
Diterpenoid alkaloids, originating from the amination of natural tetracyclic diterpenes, are a diverse class of compounds having complex structural features with many stereocenters. The important pharmacological activities and structural complexity of the diterpenoid alkaloids have long interested scientists due to their medicinal uses, infamous toxicity, and unique biosynthesis. Since 2009, 373 diterpenoid alkaloids, assigned to 46 skeletons, have been isolated and identified from plants mostly in the Ranunculaceae family. The names, classes, molecular weight, molecular formula, NMR data, and plant sources of these diterpene alkaloids are collated here. This review will be a detailed update of the naturally occurring diterpene alkaloids reported from the plant kingdom from 2009–2018, providing an in-depth discussion of their diversity, biological activities, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, application, evolution, and biosynthesis.