Total synthesis of alkaloids using both chemical and biochemical methods
Covering: 2000 to 2019
Rapid access to genomic data has facilitated the identification of the biosynthetic enzyme genes of alkaloid natural products and elucidation of their biosynthetic pathways. Enzymes for the rapid construction of molecular scaffolds and versatile modifications during the late-stage biosynthesis of complex molecular skeletons constitute unique features of biosynthetic machineries. For example, enzymes involved in an alkaloid biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss three types of useful enzymes and enzymatic reactions that have been found in the biosynthetic studies of several alkaloids, and discuss their applications for the total synthesis of natural alkaloids and their derivatives. The selected examples include a single non-ribosomal peptide synthetase SfmC that catalyzes key Pictet–Spengler reactions, which construct a characteristic tetrahydroisoquinoline skeleton in antitumor antibiotics such as saframycin, prenylation–oxidative modification enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of fungal tremorgenic mycotoxins such as penitrem as well as versatile Diels-Alderases recently discovered in the biosynthesis of plant monoterpene indole alkaloids of iboga and aspidosperma type.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Enzymes in natural product total synthesis