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Issue 26, 2020
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Highly stable and Pb-free bismuth-based perovskites for photodetector applications

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Abstract

Herein, we report the synthesis of highly stable, Pb-free bismuth iodide (BiI3 or BI), stoichiometric methylammonium bismuth iodide [(CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 or MA3Bi2I9 or s-MBI] and non-stoichiometric methylammonium bismuth iodide [(CH3NH3)2BiI5 or MA2BiI5 or Ns-MBI] perovskite thin films for photodetector applications. These films are synthesized at room temperature by a single step solution process spin coating method. The structural, optical, and morphological properties of these films were investigated using different characterization techniques such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, UV-Visible spectroscopy, etc. Formation of BI, s-MBI and Ns-MBI thin films is confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements. XRD analysis reveals that BI has a hexagonal crystal structure and a P63/mmc hexagonal space group for s-MBI and Ns-MBI. The optical properties of BI thin films show a high absorption coefficient (∼104 cm−1) and a band gap of ∼1.74 eV. Similarly, s-MBI films have a high absorption coefficient (∼103 cm−1) and an indirect band gap of ∼1.8 eV. Moving from s-MBI to Ns-MBI, the value of absorption coefficient is ∼103 cm−1 and the band gap corresponds to ∼2 eV. Finally, photodetectors based on the synthesized BI, s-MBI and Ns-MBI perovskites have been directly fabricated on FTO substrates. All photodetectors exhibited highly stable photo-switching behaviour along with excellent photoresponsivity and detectivity, with a fast response and recovery time. Our work demonstrates that Pb-free BI, s-MBI and Ns-MBI perovskites have great potential in the future for realizing stable photodetectors.

Graphical abstract: Highly stable and Pb-free bismuth-based perovskites for photodetector applications

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Article information


Submitted
15 Apr 2020
Accepted
11 Jun 2020
First published
18 Jun 2020

New J. Chem., 2020,44, 11282-11290
Article type
Paper

Highly stable and Pb-free bismuth-based perovskites for photodetector applications

A. Bhorde, S. Nair, H. Borate, S. Pandharkar, R. Aher, A. Punde, A. Waghmare, P. Shinde, P. Vairale, R. Waykar, V. Doiphode, V. Jadkar, Y. Hase, S. Rondiya, N. Patil, M. Prasad and S. Jadkar, New J. Chem., 2020, 44, 11282
DOI: 10.1039/D0NJ01806F

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