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Improved synthesis of N-ethyl-3,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazine

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Abstract

N-Ethyl-3,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazine is a highly soluble redox shuttle for overcharge protection in lithium-ion batteries with an oxidation potential of ca. 3.8 V vs. Li+/0 in carbonate solvents. This compound has enabled extensive overcharge protection of LiFePO4/graphite cells and does so at high charging rates at high concentrations. Our initial synthesis of this compound suffered from low yields and difficult purifications. Here we report a cleaner, higher-yielding synthesis and additional characterization of the product and its stable radical cation salt.

Graphical abstract: Improved synthesis of N-ethyl-3,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazine

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Article information


Submitted
13 Jan 2020
Accepted
28 May 2020
First published
15 Jun 2020

New J. Chem., 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Improved synthesis of N-ethyl-3,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazine

S. Ergun, M. D. Casselman, A. P. Kaur, N. H. Attanayake, S. R. Parkin and S. A. Odom, New J. Chem., 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0NJ00184H

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