Extraction of phenylurea herbicides from rice and environmental water utilizing MIL-100(Fe)-functionalized magnetic adsorbents†
In this paper, a novel method is reported for the extraction and enrichment of phenylurea herbicides (PUHs) from rice and environmental water samples using MIL-100(Fe)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents. Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared via self-assembly of MIL-100(Fe) NPs on the Fe3O4 surface modified by thioglycolic acid. The prepared Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) NPs displayed porosity, a conjugated structure and strong hydrogen bonding ability, which promoted high adsorption toward PUHs. We also showed that Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) NPs could adsorb and extract PUHs from environmental water and rice samples. After desorption using acetonitrile, PUH concentration was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.037–0.166 ng mL−1 in environmental water samples and 0.127–0.254 ng g−1 in rice samples. The determination coefficients (R2) were in the range of 0.9986–0.9993. The results indicate that the synthesized Fe3O4@MIL-100 (Fe) NPs are stable and effective adsorbents for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of PUHs.