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Issue 4, 2020
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Synergistic modification of commercial TiO2 by combined carbon sources of citric acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

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Abstract

Commercial TiO2 (c-TiO2) has attracted growing attention as a promising negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries owing to its high theoretical capacity and low cost, but the impurities deteriorate its electrochemical performance. Herein, a synergistic modification was proposed to ameliorate the electrochemical performance of c-TiO2 by adopting double carbon precursors of citric acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) to adjust the carbon- and Na+-doping contents. For the collocation of 15 wt% citric acid and 4 wt% CMC, the carbonized product at 750 °C achieved the optimized performance (166.2 mA h g−1 after 900 cycles at 500 mA g−1). Combining the structure and composition data with CV plots and electrochemical impedance spectra, the thin uniform carbon coating and Ti3+ induced by Na+-doping promoted the electrical conductivity among and inside the TiO2 particles, while the augmented lattice constant of TiO2 resulting from the Na+-doping also boosted the Li+-ion diffusion, thus leading to a distinct optimization of the performance.

Graphical abstract: Synergistic modification of commercial TiO2 by combined carbon sources of citric acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
30 Oct 2019
Accepted
18 Dec 2019
First published
19 Dec 2019

New J. Chem., 2020,44, 1571-1578
Article type
Paper

Synergistic modification of commercial TiO2 by combined carbon sources of citric acid and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

R. Bai and Y. Bai, New J. Chem., 2020, 44, 1571
DOI: 10.1039/C9NJ05412J

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