Development of Nanofibrous Scaffolds by Varying TiO2 Content in Crosslinked PVA for Bone Tissue Engineering
The use of ceramic and metal nanoparticles are widely proving as a preferred candidates for tissue engineering because of their excellent properties like, high penetration ability and high surface area with tuneable surface properties. In view of this, the effect of bioinert TiO2 incorporation in the polymer matrix is studied in the present study. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) was used as a main polymer base and different weight% of TiO2 (0.1 to 0.3 g) was incorporated into the crosslinked PVA matrix by varying the ratio of PVA:TiO2. Nanofibrous scaffolds were then fabricated using electrospinning technique. The physicochemical properties of the developed nanofibrous scaffolds was analysed systematically. Scanning electron microscopic images demonstrated well interconnected porous structure with uniform fibres in the range of several hundred nanometres. The effect of TiO2 incorporation was observed in terms of increase in the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds as required for cellular infiltration. The mechanical characterization of the developed scaffolds demonstrated an improved mechanical strength for lower amount of TiO2 incorporated scaffolds. The degradation study revealed slow rate of degradation with increase in TiO2 content in PVA matrix of the scaffolds. Cell viability was studied using MG-63 bone osteosarcoma cells for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, wherein PT1 scaffold with 0.1 g of TiO2 content exhibited highest cell proliferation of 99.2%. The results thus clearly show that the TiO2 incorporated PVA scaffolds can be a potential candidates for bone tissue engineering.