An intelligent film actuator with multi-level deformation behaviour†
Smart materials with simply reversible deformation or reconfigurability have shown great potential in artificial muscles, robots, controlled displays, etc. However, the combination of reversible and reconfigured functions in responsive materials, which can endow them with mature and complex actuation performance similar to that of living things, is still a great challenge. In this regard, we report an intelligent graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film with reconfigured structures resulting from inner plastic deformation after treatment at elevated temperature (40–80 °C), which simultaneously expresses basically and secondarily reversible deformation ability of its original and reconfigured states in response to external stimuli (e.g. IR light and moisture), respectively. As a result, this film achieves unique multi-level actuation behaviour by combining reversible and reconfigured functions. Based on this, an “Artificial Pupil” with two switchable light penetration modes under the different reconfigured states was designed and developed. Furthermore, many special and reconfigured 3D structures (e.g. cubic boxes, pyramids) have been well explored, which is promising for applications in future materials engineering and biomimetic devices.