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Immunoimaging is a rapidly growing field stoked in large part by the intriguing triumphs of immunotherapy. On the heels of immunotherapy's successes, there exists a growing need to evaluate tumor response to therapy particularly immunotherapy, stratify patients into responders vs. non-responders, identify inflammation, and better understand the fundamental roles of immune system components to improve both immunoimaging and immunotherapy. Innovative nanomaterials have begun to provide novel opportunities for immunoimaging, in part due to their sensitivity, modularity, capacity for many potentially varied ligands (high avidity), and potential for multifunctionality/multimodality imaging. This review strives to comprehensively summarize the integration of nanotechnology and immunoimaging, and the field's potential for clinical applications.

Graphical abstract: Nano-immunoimaging

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Article information

05 Aug 2019
11 Dec 2019
First published
11 Dec 2019

Nanoscale Horiz., 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Review Article


P. Wang, T. Kim, M. Harada, C. Contag, X. Huang and B. R. Smith, Nanoscale Horiz., 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C9NH00514E

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