Reprogramming of macrophages with macrophage cell membrane-derived nanoghosts†
Macrophages can be polarized to M1 or M2 type with pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties. Nanoparticles have recently been found to be a promising platform to polarize macrophages to desired phenotypes. This article explores the usage of cell membrane-derived nanoparticles (nanoghosts) for reprogramming macrophages. The efficacy and efficiency of this technology are examined via cytokine analysis and immunostaining of the nanoghost-treated cells. We find that several cytokines/chemokines are highly expressed on nanoghosts. In addition, a 2D wound healing model is deployed to reveal their potential application in clinical settings.