Broadband transparency with all-dielectric metasurfaces engraved on silicon waveguide facets: effect of inverted and extruded features based on Babinet's principle
Building blocks of photonic integrated circuitry (PIC), optical waveguides, have long been considered transparent. However, the inevitable Fresnel reflection from waveguide facets limits their transparency. This limitation becomes more severe in high-index waveguides in which the transparency may drop to 65%. We overcome this inherent optical property of high-index waveguides by engineering an appropriate facet landscape made of sub-wavelength artificial features unit cells. For this, we develop a semi-analytical formalism for predicting the metasurface parameters made of high-index dielectric materials, to be engraved on the facets of optical waveguides, based on Babinet's principle: either extruded from the waveguide facet or etched into it. Our semi-analytical model predicts the shape of anti-reflective metasurface unit cells to achieve transmission as high as 98.5% in near-infrared from 1 μm to 2 μm. This new class of metasurfaces may be used for the improvement of PIC devices for communication and sensing, where device transparency is crucial for high signal-to-noise ratios.