Enhanced efficacy in drug-resistant cancer cells through synergistic nanoparticle mediated delivery of cisplatin and decitabine†
There are several limitations with monodrug cancer therapy, including poor bioavailability, rapid clearance and drug resistance. Combination therapy addresses these by exploiting synergism between different drugs against cancer cells. In particular, the combination of epigenetic therapies with conventional chemotherapeutic agents can improve the initial tumour response and overcome acquired drug resistance. Co-encapsulation of multiple therapeutic agents into a single polymeric nanoparticle is one of the many approaches taken to enhance therapeutic effect and improve the pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, different types of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), matrix and core–shell (CS), were investigated for simultaneous encapsulation of a demethylating drug, decitabine, and a potent anticancer agent, cisplatin. It was shown that by altering the configuration of the CS structure, the release profile could be tuned. In order to investigate whether this could enhance the anticancer effect compared to cisplatin, human ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780) and its cisplatin resistant variant (A2780cis) were exposed to free cisplatin and the CS–NPs. A better response was obtained in both cell lines (11% and 51% viability of A2780 and A2780cis, respectively) using CS–NPs than cisplatin alone (27%, 82% viability of A2780 and A2780cis, respectively) or in combination with decitabine (22%, 96% viability of A2780 and A2780cis, respectively) at equivalent doses (10 μM).