Hydrogen bond-modulated molecular packing and its applications in high-performance non-doped organic electroluminescence†
Exploiting high-performance non-doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a step towards future commercial application requirements, but great challenges remain due to quenching related to intermolecular triplet interaction. In this work, a novel strategy of exploiting high-performance non-doped electroluminescence via tuning intermolecular hydrogen bonding is demonstrated. Suitable intermolecular hydrogen bonding enables formation of a 3D supramolecular framework, which not only evidently restricts the nonradiative process and suppresses the triplet exciton quenching caused by π–π stacking of triplets, but also favors the horizontal molecular orientations especially in their non-doped states. The non-doped OLED based on the thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter mTPy-PXZ with such suitable intermolecular hydrogen bonds exhibits the state-of-the-art performance with maximum external quantum efficiency of up to 23.6% with only 7.2% roll-off at 1000 cd m−2. Moreover, it is the first report that the performance of an OLED with a non-doped emitting layer can surpass its corresponding optimized doped device. It is believed that this hydrogen bond-modulated mechanism can not only provide a new pathway for designing emitters for high-performance non-doped organic electroluminescence, but also has great potential in other solid-state luminescence applications.