Evaluation of Water Remediation Techniques from Antibiotic Contaminants Using Activated Carbon
Antibiotics have emerged as important global concern even at low concentrations due to their persistence influence on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem with possibilities of evolution of antibiotic resistant superbugs. They have been reported worldwide in almost all environmental matrices such as food chain, soil, underground-surface water, plants and animals to name a few. This suggests that the current water treatment processes are insufficient for removal of antibiotics contaminates. Here we review removal of antibiotics water contaminates with different physicochemical properties like structure, type, solubility and more. To counter such issue several methods have been explored to remove these water contaminates. Current scenario of cause, occurrence, needs, mechanisms of several antibiotics and elimination by adsorption using activated carbon (AC) is explored. Removal efficiency by different activated carbon material have been evaluated by their rate of degradation and further examined by several isothermal models. In addition, the adsorption mechanisms have been described. The future of activated carbon-based removal of antibiotics by adsorption are elaborated considering research challenges, cost effectiveness and scaling up aspects.