Lithographically patterned well-type graphene liquid cells with rational designs†
Graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy allows in situ observation of nanomaterial dynamics in a liquid environment. However, this method suffers from both random formation and small size of liquid pockets. Here, we introduce facile and mass-producible graphene-sealed well-type liquid cells with rational designs. The developed liquid cell structure and its formation mechanism depending on hole diameter (d)/spacer thickness (h) ratio are systematically analyzed. Finally, we show its high-resolution imaging and chemical analysis capability for nanoparticles and biomaterial applications. This work will provide an enhanced liquid cell platform for diverse liquid environmental studies.