Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 21, 2020
Previous Article Next Article

p-Xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid using zeolite in a continuous flow system

Author affiliations

Abstract

The continuous flow synthesis of p-xylene (pXL) via Diels–Alder cycloaddition of lignocellulosic biomass-derivable 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and acrylic acid (AA) was performed over different type of zeolites, i.e. Beta, ZSM-5 and Y. Among the tested zeolites, Beta zeolite showed an optimum catalytic performance in pXL synthesis from DMF and AA. In this context, Beta zeolite with a Si/Al molar ratio of 150 which is abbreviated as Beta(150), resulted in complete DMF conversion with a pXL yield of 83% and by-product 2,5-dimethylbenzoic acid (DMBA) with a yield of 17%, at 473 K in 10.1 min residence time (τ), with excess AA (0.7 M). This high catalytic activity is attributed to the high specific surface area of 1180 m2 g−1 with a three-dimensional porous architecture with a pore diameter of 6.6 × 6.7 Å and an acid site density above 40 μmol g−1. The utilized Beta(150) showed a very stable performance up to 10 h time on stream with minor deactivation after 8 h of TOS, while the pXL yield remained above 70%. The original catalytic performance of Beta(150) in the conversion of DMF to pXL was restored by applying a regeneration step for the spent catalyst, which is simple in continuous flow reactors. Finally, this sustainable continuous flow process enables an efficient and selective pXL production from DMF and AA as a dienophile at lower reaction temperature (473 K) and shorter residence time (τ = 10.1 min) in comparison to a batch fashion.

Graphical abstract: p-Xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid using zeolite in a continuous flow system

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
04 May 2020
Accepted
03 Sep 2020
First published
04 Sep 2020

This article is Open Access

Green Chem., 2020,22, 7398-7405
Article type
Paper

p-Xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid using zeolite in a continuous flow system

J. A. Mendoza Mesa, F. Brandi, I. Shekova, M. Antonietti and M. Al-Naji, Green Chem., 2020, 22, 7398
DOI: 10.1039/D0GC01517B

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

  • For reproduction of material from NJC:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
    [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
  • For reproduction of material from PPS:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements