Deep eutectic solvents: cutting-edge applications in cross-coupling reactions
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), surmised as “the organic reaction medium of the century”, have reverberated a new symphony throughout the present green millennium. A brief historical account of the DESs systems, their physicochemical properties as task-specific and designer solvents for cross-coupling reactions, are appraised including the hole theory that explains the underlying mechanistic pathway for this emerging neoteric medium. The insights in to cross-coupling reactions and their applications are encapsulated highlighting the significant achievements pertaining to the dual role of DESs as solvent and catalyst; popular “name-reactions” for carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond formations relating to the nature of DESs and the core optimum conditions are included. The review also encompasses the novel approaches to privilege catalytic systems and identifying the voids left in cross-coupling reactions where DESs systems have not made inroads yet. Finally, the challenges of utilizing the neoteric derivatives of DES for these reactions is expounded.