Electrochemical Oxidative C(sp3)-H Azolation of Lactams Under Mild Conditions
Lactam-containing structural compounds are ubiquitous in drugs and biomolecules. An electrochemical oxidative direct C(sp3)-H azolation of lactams has been reported under metal catalyst free and external oxidant free conditions. This electrochemical C(sp3)-H/N-H coupling is characterized by its broad substrate scope of azoles and lactams, mild conditions at room temperature. Mechanistic studies suggested that the reaction possibly involves a radical process. Moreover, the site selectivity can be explained by DFT calculations. More meaningfully, a gram-scale synthesis method of flow electrochemistry was performed to demonstrate the scaled-up applicability of this transformation.