Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.


Issue 7, 2020
Previous Article Next Article

Recycling lithium-ion batteries: adding value with multiple lives

Author affiliations

Abstract

Resource extraction and limitations, valuable elements/minerals loss to land-fill, lack of recycling are growing concerns with increasing lithium-ion battery uptake and the synthesis of new cathodes (and more widely completely new materials for each battery). Factors such as these are exasperated in lithium-ion batteries which are currently one of the most expensive batteries to purchase and arguably are one of the most difficult to recycle efficiently. Herein, a mixed metal compound from the separation and processing of spent commercial batteries is compositionally, structurally, and electrochemically characterised as-received and sintered at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Whilst structural characterisation shows the significant presence of typical commercial layered cathode materials and their constituent elements via elemental analysis, this work shows that, without any further modifications to the as-received material, it is capable of delivering reversible capacities of over 300 mA h g−1 at 30 mA g−1 after 100 cycles as an anode in a “second-use” or “second-life” lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, the “second-life” lithium-ion battery has an increased intrinsic elemental value due to higher than normal concentrations of valuable metals (both in the fresh cathode and second-life anode) which can be extracted in future. This can be considered as an alternative approach to lithium-ion battery recycling.

Graphical abstract: Recycling lithium-ion batteries: adding value with multiple lives

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
21 Jan 2020
Accepted
09 Mar 2020
First published
10 Mar 2020

Green Chem., 2020,22, 2244-2254
Article type
Paper

Recycling lithium-ion batteries: adding value with multiple lives

J. Wu, A. Mackenzie and N. Sharma, Green Chem., 2020, 22, 2244
DOI: 10.1039/D0GC00269K

Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements