Ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products using predictive toxicology approaches
The use of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and personal care products (PCPs) is growing day by day in all over the world. Thus, these materials have appearedas the contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) responsible for hazards and toxicity towards aquatic and terrestrial living systems as well as to humans. Regulatory agencies from all over the world have formulated multiple rules, guidelines and regulations for the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and PCPs (PPCPs) to the ecosystem. As the generation of huge amount of experimental data is time consuming, costly, and also requires sacrifice of a large number of animals, computational modeling or in silico approaches are proving an efficient technique for not only risk assessment but also for risk management and data gap filling. The present review deals with critical assessment of hazardous potential of PPCPs in the environment. The importance of in silico modeling approaches of the environmental toxicity endpoints to diverse organisms covering all compartments of taxonomy, details of the most commonly employed endpoints, ecotoxicity databases and expert systems as rapid screening tools are discussed meticulously with completele mechanistic interpretations of in silico models over the years.