Greener synthesis of lignin nanoparticles and their applications
The remarkable absorption capacity, biodegradability and non-toxicity of lignin nanoparticles enable them to be appropriate vehicles for drug molecules and inorganic particles. Lignin nanoparticles have potential applications in the biomedical and environmental fields, such as tissue engineering or regeneration, artificial muscles, and strong underwater antifouling materials. Additionally, the synthesis of nanoparticles using physicochemical methods can generate toxic and hazardous effects in the environment and often need expensive materials and instruments. Thus, applications of cost-effective, safer, simple, sustainable and eco-friendly approaches for fabricating nanoparticles which comply with the “green chemistry” principles are very important. In this review, significant recent advancements pertaining to the biomedical and therapeutic applications of lignin nanoparticles are highlighted including their greener synthetic options.