Effect of enzymatic treatment of citrus by-products on bacterial growth, adhesion and cytokine production by Caco-2 cells†
Citrus by-products are inexpensive sources of polyphenols, important bioactive compounds with wide pharmaceutical and food applications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of enzymatic treatment of citrus by-products on the polyphenolic profile of extracts and assess the influence of extracts on the growth and adhesion of probiotics and foodborne pathogenic bacteria and on the inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Enzyme-assisted extraction altered the polyphenolic profile (as assessed by HPLC-DAD), increasing the content of aglycone flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin). Enzymatic extracts and aglycone flavanones exhibited higher antibacterial and prebiotic activities than non-enzymatic extracts and glycoside flavanones. However, a higher content of aglycones was not associated with higher anti-adhesion activity. Citrus extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased the inflammatory response of Caco-2 cells to Salmonella Typhimurium adhesion. These results support the sustainable reuse of citrus agroindustrial wastes and indicate the potential of citrus extracts in preventing infection by foodborne pathogenic bacteria and inducing proliferation of probiotics in foods and the gut environment.