Melatonin as an inducer of arecoline and their coordinated roles in anti-oxidative activity and immune responses†
Arecoline is one of the main medicinal constituents in areca. Melatonin is an amine molecule with multiple functions in plants and animals. However, the interaction between arecoline and melatonin remains unknown. Herein, metabolomics analysis showed that multiple metabolites including arecoline were induced in areca by exogenous melatonin. In vitro assay demonstrated that the induced arecoline had strong antioxidant capacities, being similar to the traditional function of melatonin. Both arecoline and melatonin could significantly improve plant disease resistance against Colletotrichum kahawae and delay post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of areca fruits, through modulation of the levels of jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ETH) and abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) level as well as glycolytic activity. In addition, animal and cell assays indicated that arecoline and melatonin could commonly enhance anti-inflammatory effects through regulating ROS and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Taken together, melatonin could serve as an inducer of arecoline and they show coordinated roles in antioxidative activity and immune responses in areca and animals. This study greatly extends the knowledge of the action of melatonin in areca and animals.