Modifying sensory perception of chocolate coated rice waffles through bite-to-bite contrast: an application case study using 3D inkjet printing
Consumers expect perceptual constancy between multiple bites of the same food. In this study, we investigated how sweetness, creaminess, expected fullness and liking of chocolate coated rice waffles can be modified by bite-to-bite variation in chocolate thickness. 3D inkjet printing was used to accurately deposit chocolate layers varying in thickness (0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mm) onto rice waffles. In the first study, single bites of homogeneous coated chocolate rice waffles were evaluated. With increasing thickness of chocolate coating, sweetness, creaminess, expected fullness increased significantly. In the second study, we evaluated seven chocolate coated rice waffles containing constant total chocolate amount but differing in the chocolate thickness between three sequential bites. The order of chocolate thickness between bites had significant, but small effects on sweetness, expected fullness and liking. Interestingly, homogenous coated rice waffles were preferred over inhomogeneous coated ones. Neither recency nor primacy effects was sufficient to explain sweetness perception in this study. We conclude that sweetness of chocolate coated rice waffles can be modified by bite-to-bite variation of chocolate thickness. This study demonstrates that 3D inkjet printing allows to produce foods with bite-to-bite contrast, which possibly might be used for healthier food product design.