Investigating the calcium binding characteristics of black bean protein hydrolysate†
The black bean protein has been widely utilized to prepare hydrolysates with different bioactive properties. Herein, we hydrolyzed the black bean protein to prepare hydrolysate with calcium binding activity and characterized its behavior. Our results showed that ficin was superior in obtaining hydrolysate with calcium binding capacity in comparison with trypsin, alcalase and bromelain. In particular, the optimal capacity of ficin hydrolysate reached 77.54 ± 1.61 μg mg−1, where the optimal hydrolysis conditions of ficin were a temperature of 70 °C, a pH value of 6.2, an enzyme concentration of 1.61% and a time of 3 h. This might be due to high proportions of aspartic acid and glutamic acid (35.59%). Further spectral analysis evidenced the formation of hydrolysate–calcium complexes, demonstrating that the interaction between hydrolysate and calcium ions primarily occur on carboxyl oxygen atoms and amino nitrogen atoms. These findings provide a possible utilization of black bean hydrolysate to serve as a calcium supplement nutraceutical to enhance the absorption and bioavailability.