Enhancement of physicochemical and encapsulation stability of O1/W/O2 multiple nanoemulsions loaded with coenzyme Q10 or conjugated linoleic acid by incorporating polyphenolic extract
Multiple O1/W/O2 nanoemulsions and O1/W nanoemulsions fortified with CLA or CoQ10 were produced using extra virgin olive or olive pomace oil and were also incorporated with polyphenols extracted from olive kernel to enhance their kinetic and chemical stability. They were prepared using a high-speed ultrasonic homogenizer. Specifically, nanoemulsions with 6 wt% lipid phase and 6 wt% non-ionic emulsifier (Tween 40) were produced and they demonstrated a droplet diameter >200 nm and high encapsulation stability during 30 days of storage at 4 °C or 25 °C. The incorporation of CLA or CoQ10 and polyphenolic compounds facilitated the homogenization of emulsions, reducing the droplet size and enhancing their chemical stability, and their bioactive retention values were >79%. O1/W/O2 nanoemulsions were produced using a mixture of non-ionic emulsifiers (Span 20 and Tween 40) and the O1/W enriched nanoemulsion as the dispersed phase. All multiple emulsions showed a bimodal droplet size distribution and Newtonian behavior while polyphenols facilitated their homogenization. Both vegetable oils resulted in samples with high kinetic and chemical stability; the bioactive retention values were found to be >80% at the end of 30 days of storage at 4 °C or 25 °C. Extra virgin olive oil resulted in more stable nanoemulsions in regards to kinetic and chemical stability at 4 °C, showing limited creaming and sedimentation boundary. Multiple nanoemulsions with the lowest initial droplet size presented the lowest droplet diameter growth and phase separation and the highest retention values. By comparing O1/W nanoemulsions and O1/W/O2 nanoemulsions, we noted that the reduction in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity during storage was higher in the O1/W type. However, both delivery systems protected CLA and CoQ10 presenting high retention during storage. FTIR spectra before and after ultrasonic homogenization indicated that the sonication process did not significantly affect the lipid phase of O1/W/O2 nanoemulsions.