Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 8, 2020
Previous Article Next Article

Dietary bioactive ingredients to modulate the gut microbiota-derived metabolite TMAO. New opportunities for functional food development

Author affiliations

Abstract

There is a growing body of clinical evidence that supports a strong association between elevated circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels with increased risk of developing adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. TMAO is synthesized through a meta-organismal stepwise process that involves (i) the microbial production of TMA in the gut from dietary precursors and (ii) its subsequent oxidation to TMAO by flavin-containing monooxygenases in the liver. Choline, L-carnitine, betaine, and other TMA-containing compounds are the major dietary precursors of TMA. TMAO can also be absorbed directly from the gastrointestinal tract after the intake of TMAO-rich foods such as fish and shellfish. Thus, diet is an important factor as it provides the nutritional precursors to eventually produce TMAO. A number of studies have attempted to associate circulating TMAO levels with the consumption of diets rich in these foods. On the other hand, there is growing interest for the development of novel food ingredients that reduce either the TMAO-induced damage or the endogenous TMAO levels through the interference with microbiota and host metabolic processes involved in TMAO pathway. Such novel functional food ingredients would offer great opportunities to control circulating TMAO levels or its effects, and potentially contribute to decrease cardiovascular risk. In this review we summarize and discuss current data regarding the effects of TMA precursors-enriched foods or diets on circulating TMAO levels, and recent findings regarding the circulating TMAO-lowering effects of specific foods, food constituents and phytochemicals found in herbs, individually or in extracts, and their potential beneficial effect for cardiovascular health.

Graphical abstract: Dietary bioactive ingredients to modulate the gut microbiota-derived metabolite TMAO. New opportunities for functional food development

Back to tab navigation

Article information


Submitted
12 May 2020
Accepted
10 Jul 2020
First published
10 Jul 2020

This article is Open Access

Food Funct., 2020,11, 6745-6776
Article type
Review Article

Dietary bioactive ingredients to modulate the gut microbiota-derived metabolite TMAO. New opportunities for functional food development

C. Simó and V. García-Cañas, Food Funct., 2020, 11, 6745
DOI: 10.1039/D0FO01237H

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

  • For reproduction of material from NJC:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
    [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
  • For reproduction of material from PPS:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements