Protection against developing type 2 diabetes by coffee consumption: assessment of the role of chlorogenic acid and metabolites on glycaemic responses
Epidemiological studies show a convincing long-term and dose-dependent protection of coffee and decaffeinated coffee against developing type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms of this effect are still not understood even though several have been proposed, including a potential effect on blood glucose by chlorogenic acids. However, there is minimal effect of decaffeinated coffee on postprandial blood glucose and insulin when consumed with carbohydrates, although there may be effects on incretin hormones, but these have been measured in only a few studies. Although chlorogenic acids do not affect carbohydrate digestion directly, they may affect glucose absorption and subsequent utilisation, the latter through metabolites derived from endogenous pathways or action of the gut microbiota. To advance understanding of the protective effect of coffee chlorogenic acids, more chronic intervention studies are needed on decaffeinated coffee, coupled with mechanistic studies in vitro using more realistic concentrations of the relevant chlorogenic acid metabolites.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Recent Review Articles, Food & Function Recent HOT articles and International Conference on Polyphenols and Health (ICPH2019) collection