Oral administration of Lactobacillus fermentum post-weaning improves cardiometabolic parameters in rat offspring exposed to maternal dyslipidemia
Background: Maternal dyslipidemia alters the gut microbiota composition and contributes to the development of arterial hypertension (AH) in adult offspring. Here we evaluated the effects of a newly Lactobacillus fermentum probiotic formulation given post-weaning on cardiometabolic parameters and gut microbiota in male and female rats offspring from dams exposed to maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy and lactation. Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats (n = 14) were fed with control diet (CTL = 7) or dyslipidemic diet (DLP = 7) during gestation and lactation. After weaning, male and female offsprings received standard diet up to 90 days of life. Rats were divided in three groups: CTL group + saline solution (n = 14); DLP group + saline solution (n = 14) and DLP group that received probiotic formulation of L. fermentum (n = 14). Administration of vehicle or probiotic formulation containing L. fermentum 139, L. fermentum 263 and L. fermentum 296 (ratio 1:1:1, 1 x 109 CFU/mL) were administered daily by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Results: The intervention with probiotic formulation of L. fermentum in DLP male and female offspring reduced total cholesterol (TC), and increased HDL-c, but did not affect the insulin resistance induced by maternal dyslipidemia. DLP groups composed by male and female rats that received probiotic formulation of L. fermentum also demonstrated improvement in fecal Lactobacillus sp. counts, blood pressure and sympathetic tone, without affecting baroreflex modulation. Conclusion: The probiotic formulation containing L. fermentum improved lipid profile and autonomic dysfunction in male and female offspring exposed to maternal dyslipidemia.