Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.



Gastrointestinal digestion of dietary advanced glycation endproducts using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1)

Author affiliations

Abstract

Protein- and sugar-rich food products processed at high temperatures contain large amounts of dietary advanced glycation endproducts (dAGEs). Our earlier studies have shown that specifically protein-bound dAGEs induce a pro-inflammatory reaction in human macrophage-like cells. To what extent these protein-bound dAGEs survive the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is still unclear. In this study we analysed gastric and small intestinal digestion of dAGEs using the validated, standardised TNO in vitro gastroIntestinal digestion model (TIM-1), a dynamic in vitro model which mimics the upper human GI tract. This model takes multiple parameters into account, such as: dynamic pH curves, peristaltic mixing, addition of bile and pancreatic digestive enzymes, and passive absorption. Samples of different digested food products were collected at different time points after (i) only gastric digestion and (ii) after both gastric plus small intestinal digestion. Samples were analysed for dAGEs using UPLC-MS/MS for the lysine derived Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and Nε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and the arginine derived methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 (MG-H1), and glyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone-1 (G-H1). All AGEs were quantified in their protein-bound and free form. The results of this in vitro study show that protein-bound dAGEs survive gastrointestinal digestion and are additionally formed during small intestinal digestion. In ginger biscuits, the presence MG-H1 in the GI tract increased with more than 400%. This also indicates that dAGEs enter the human GI tract with potential pro-inflammatory characteristics.

Graphical abstract: Gastrointestinal digestion of dietary advanced glycation endproducts using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1)

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
21 Feb 2020
Accepted
20 Apr 2020
First published
30 Jun 2020

This article is Open Access

Food Funct., 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Gastrointestinal digestion of dietary advanced glycation endproducts using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (TIM-1)

T. van der Lugt, K. Venema, S. van Leeuwen, M. F. Vrolijk, A. Opperhuizen and A. Bast, Food Funct., 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0FO00450B

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

  • For reproduction of material from NJC:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
    [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
  • For reproduction of material from PPS:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
  • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
    [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.


Social activity

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements