Cis 9, trans 11, but not trans 10, cis 12 CLA isomer, impairs intestinal epithelial barrier function in IPEC-J2 cells and mice through activation of GPR120-[Ca2+]i and MLCK signaling pathway
This study aimed to investigate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on intestinal epithelial barrier function and explore the underlying mechanisms. IPEC-J2 cells and mice were treated with different CLA isomers. The intestinal epithelial barrier function determined by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), the expression of tight junction proteins, and the involvement of G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were assessed. In vitro, c9, t11-CLA, but not t10, c12-CLA isomer, impaired epithelial barrier function in IPEC-J2 by downregulating expression of tight junction proteins. Meanwhile, c9, t11-CLA isomer enhanced GPR120 expression, while knockdown of GPR120 eliminated the impaired epithelial barrier function induced by c9, t11-CLA isomer. In addition, c9, t11-CLA isomer increased [Ca2+]i and activated MLCK signaling pathway in a GPR120-dependent manner. However, chelation of [Ca2+]i reversed c9, t11-CLA isomer-induced MLCK activation and epithelial barrier function impairment of IPEC-J2. Furthermore, inhibition of MLCK totally abolished the impairment of epithelial barrier function induced by c9, t11-CLA. In vivo, dietary supplementation with c9, t11-CLA rather than t10, c12-CLA isomer decreased expression of intestinal tight junction proteins and GPR120, increased intestinal permeability, and activated MLCK signaling pathway in mice. Taken together, our findings showed that c9, t11-CLA, but not t10, c12-CLA isomer, impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function in IPEC-J2 cells and mice through activation of GPR120-[Ca2+]i and MLCK signaling pathway. These data provided new insight into the regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier by different CLA isomers and more reference for CLA application in human and animals.